Famous lake on the planet
The great lakes of North America – Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario – with their connecting channels form the largest freshwater system on Earth. Their total area exceeds 245 OOO square km, and the volume is 22 cubic km 813 – fifth of all freshwater on the planet. If you spread it out evenly across the US, she will cover her in a layer of 3 m. the Great lakes are so vast that it has identified a special climate with cool summers and abundant winter snowfall. When cold Arctic air invades into the saturated moisture atmosphere, snow literally falls asleep in the coastal town. The observer caught on the surface of the moon, able to see these lakes to the naked eye and even to identify the largest of them – the Upper, the most extensive fresh water lake on Earth. The coastline of 4500 km, the width from East to West is 560 km and from North to South 260 km, Water of this lake is fed which flows into the Atlantic ocean the St. Lawrence river.
THE LAKE, BORN OF THE EXPLOSION
Crater lake, the deepest lake in North America,was the result of a powerful eruption 7700 years ago. The explosion of the volcano Mazama in the Cascade mountains in the territory of Oregon left a crater (the Caldera) with a depth of about 1200 m, which gradually filled with water. Then from the bottom of the lake rose a new small volcano and formed an island in the middle of it. The bed of the crater lake have been studied by hydroacoustic devices, which are located at the exits of underwater thermal springs. Water comes from bottom cracks and is heated by hot volcanic rocks; it is suspended particles and salts of these rocks give the lake a bright blue hue.
The lake Nyos in Cameroon on 21 August 1986 exhaled a cloud of deadly carbon dioxide. Having neither color nor smell, carbon dioxide imperceptibly has spread through the valleys,killing 1,700 people. Just two years before nearby lake Manoun killed by the same gas 37. The reason was that these ordinary at first glance, the reservoirs are found in volcanic area. Through the bottom of the crack stand out and accumulate in the water close to magma generated gases – mainly carbon dioxide. Weak quake, he “boiled over”, like in a bottle of soda when it is shaken, and burst out. Over the last 20 years he managed to accumulate in both lakes to dangerous levels, perhaps twice the previous one. There is concern that the next release is already threatening the lives of several thousand people, not to mention wild fauna, barely recovering from the last disaster. Now the banks are built on a special installation that will pump carbon dioxide from the bottom layers of water, and must prevent future such disasters.
TUFA TOWERS MONO LAKE
Above the surface of Mono lake in California (USA) fairy-tale castles rise in height up to 9 m. They are composed of volcanic tuff, formed as a result of the activities of the underground hot springs. Here is a Paradise for the geologist. The lake, the oldest in North America, emerged 760 000 years ago and surrounded by volcanoes. Two of its Islands – a volcanic dome. This mountainous basin is filled by water of glacial streams. Now it covers an area of 170 square km, and at the end of the last glaciation it was 60 times more.
THE LAKE WITH AN UNUSUAL SMELL
Window ice age the melting ice formed a huge lake, which stretches across the Western part of the North American continent. Since then it’s shrunken, decreased ten times its original size -52 000 sq km and increased the salinity. Now the Great Salt lake is located almost in the middle of flat and dazzling white Bonnyville salt flat in Utah. Its water contains 5 billion tons of salt: it is five times saltier sea and more easily retains on a surface of the person.