The Lake Saimaa
The largest lake (or a lake system Saimaa) is located in South-Eastern Finland between the cities of Joensuu and Lappeenranta. It is a network of many interconnected ponds with a total water surface area of 4400 km². The shoreline of the pond stretches for 15 thousand kilometers. Winding rocky Islands, which form a whole 13710 lake Saimaa water and rocky mazes. The only river flowing out of the reservoir – Vuoksi, flows on the territory of Russia and flows into lake Ladoga.
Formed the lake basin water system of Saimaa as a result of active tectonic processes that formed Archean ancient Russian platform and the Baltic shield. Tectonic faults in the earth’s crust in geological time, powerful cover have been smoothed by glaciation. When the glacier retreated, the fault was quickly filled with melt water and became the bays of the ancient Yoldia sea Baltic sea, it happened about ten thousand years ago.
Isolation basin waters from lake Saimaa to the Baltic sea happened gradually, about eight thousand years ago. Water in the lakes Saimaa via river valley of Kalajoki flowed into the Gulf of Bothnia. As a result of catastrophic release of water from lake päijänne through the valley of the Kemijoki river breakout through the salpausselkä ridge and the fall of the water level of lake Saimaa was separated into independent hydrological basin. During the subsequent geological periods lake system Saimaa was formed by runoff through the valley of the Kemijoki river.
Modern channel flow on the river Vuoksi to lake Ladoga was formed five thousand years ago. At the end of the eighteenth century in Finland, the commander of Russian forces Alexander Suvorov ordered on the shores of lake Saimaa to construct numerous outposts. The border with Sweden at the time took place on the surface of this Finnish lakes. The waterway to the Russian ships was under the control of the Swedish artillery batteries. The commander finds a way to build on the lake a system of small channels connecting the internal bays.
Thus, with the help of the local population, the soldiers constructed a four channel and created a navigable channel for ships of the Russian fleet between Lappeenranta fortress and Olavinlinna castle. These channels were subsequently used for economic needs for the transport of goods, and today are landscape views and are used for tourism purposes. Shipping of the Saimaa canal that connected the lake with the Gulf of Finland, was built in 1856, making an important reservoir for the state transportation artery.
At this time, became a thorough mapping of the area adjacent to the lake, clarifying the size of the reservoir and the mapping of the main waterways. In 1857, by order of the Senate naval officer retired Johan Bartram amounted to an underwater map of the lake. In lake Saimaa are found rare species of salmon lake, including relict Saimaa salmon, pike perch, vendace, pike, perch, grayling, Saimaa Arctic char, brown trout, various cyprinid fish species. This abundance of fish is supported through stocking, the fry of valuable fish species, especially salmon, are produced periodically in the lake.
The pond provides visitors a unique opportunity for fishing noble. The lake is home to threatened the extinction of rare species of seals – the Saimaa ringed seal. On the shores of the lake and the Islands are overgrown with fir and pine trees in the area Paasselka there is an interesting landmark, the old crater from the meteorite.